The records don't lie
In researching the history of New England's stone walls I have run across much evidence that contradicts the accepted theory regarding their construction. This shouldn't come as a surprise viewed within the context of many other “mystery stone walls” existing all over the Eastern U.S. And Canada. There are mysterious stone walls that baffle experts in Georgia, Illinois, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Oklahoma, Alabama, Kentucky, Indiana and many other states. The majority of these have been dated by archaeologists to precolonial times. In West Virginia the Armstrong mystery stone wall is 30 feet wide 5 feet tall 10 miles long and concluded to have been built by the Adena mound builder culture who existed from 1000 B.C. to 200 A.D. in the Kanawha Valley. This is one of many unexplained stone walls in that state. In a November 7th 1900 New York times article, the mysterious Brandywine stone wall complex of Mississippi is reported on. The wall is 4 square miles, each stone is six feet long, 3 feet wide and 2 feet thick. From the article “The sides and angles of the blocks of stone are so perfect that they resemble pressed brick. The tops of the walls are perfectly horizontal and without regard to the unevenness of the earths surface. The seams between the tiers are perfectly straight and each block of stone is perfectly horizontal in position and these blocks are smoothly dressed on the edges and ends. A personal inspection of these great structures as they lie partly buried in the earth would relieve the minds of the most skeptical of all doubt of it not being the work of the hands of man. The information above given is vouched for by other parties who have visited the scene in recent years. Truly, there is work for the scientist here. The builders, the Jackson News thinks, were some prehistoric race- it could not be otherwise”.
In 1852 in Rockwall Texas a 20 mile (5.6m x 3.5m) stone wall was discovered and dated to great antiquity that gave the town its name. In Eastern Canada professor Gerard Leduc has recorded a series of stone walls 2 to 3 feet high beginning and ending with no apparent purpose which are not associated with the fields of farmers. The local native tribes claim that the walls were there when they arrived thousands of years ago. Early European settlers in the Ohio valley encountered abandoned stone wall hilltop enclosures. The construction of these walls was assigned to the Hopewell mound builders that built roughly from 200 B.C. to 500 A.D. Many of these structures have been revealed to align with astronomical phenomena. Quite frankly, there is a staggering amount of these walls that have been thoroughly researched outside of New England. For some odd reason there seems to be a pervasive bias against proper investigation of stone walls in the area we live. If many stone walls already existed in the New World when colonists arrived then there must have been documented evidence. This is most certainly the case and many of the reports are matter of fact, as if this were fairly known and taken for granted. Let's look at a few of the reports describing Indian “stone fences” and stone walls. The colonists attributed the stone work to Native Americans because they were the culture present at the time but Native American oral tradition does not include stone wall building.
Henry Baker, History of Montville CT. 1896 p 31. “Owanecco.... afterwards gave them each (two Englishmen who rescued him from drowning) One hundred acres of land, which transaction was afterwards confirmed by the General Court, and ordered to be surveyed and laid out “about a mile or two west northerly of the Ancient Indian Fence”.
Stonington, CT Deeds 1664-1714. Book 2; Part 3; 2-79: “and from thence were run north northeast northerly 288 rod where we marked a small walnut tree and marked seven notches on it a little within the Indian fence at Qualquetoye. The above written act of surveyors was entered Jan. 4th 1680.
Ancestors and descendant of Johnathan Abell, P.11 (Rehoboth, MA) The 26th of the 12th month 1651, it was agreed that Robert Abell and Richart Bullock should burn the commons round about, from the Indian Fence.
Quassakonkanuck from ancient Native American place names in Rhode Island means “stone fence boundary mark; place at the stone wall”.
The Smithsonian also documented one of the massive ancient stone wall complexes found in New Hampshire. Here is part of E. G. Squire's report. Smithsonian Contribution to Knowledge, Vol 2 1851; p 145-146. “when the first settlers discovered the fort, there were oak trees of large size standing within the stone walls. Within the enclosure and in the mound and vicinity were found innumerable ornaments, such as crystals cut into shapes of diamonds, squares, pyramids, etc...” This site was not a fort but a ceremonial complex. It had stone blocking mounds and horseshoe shaped stone walls, both Mississippian mound building features but done with stone and not earth.
From John Pynchon (founder of Springfield, MA) in a letter to John Winthrop Jr. dated Nov 30, 1654. “Sir,I hear a report of a stone wall and strong fort in it, made all of stone, which is newly discovered at or near Pequot, I should be glad to know the truth of it from yourself, here being many strange reports about it”. Besides the wall complex, Pynchon is referring to the precolonial stone chamber at the site which is oriented to the equinox spring sunrise just like the stone chamber in Goshen. This doesn't sound like a colonial population convinced that all walls were built in the last couple hundred years as we have been led to believe.
Underneath the Hudson River
The following news item is an example of under reporting that takes place when new information arises that doesn't fit the existing paradigm. On December 18, 2002 the New York Times reported the following. “Scientists mapping the bottom of the Hudson River with sonar say that they have found nearly every single ship that ever foundered in the river over the last 400 years or more. The surveys have also turned up more mysterious structures, including a series of submerged walls more than 900 feet long that scientists say are clearly of human construction. They say the walls are probably 3000 years old because that was the last time the river's water levels were low enough to have allowed construction on dry land. “I think there are going to be really significant findings”, said Warren Riess, a research associate professor of history and marine science at the University of Maine”. Or maybe there won't be because no one will hear about this story again. This is how the information filter works, maybe something might rarely slip by once but never twice. Someone who posted a comment on line after the article sums up my sentiments, “The heck with the ships, who was building 900 ft. long stone walls in the Northeast North America in 1000 B.C. or earlier”. Shouldn't this report rewrite the history books, instead of getting scant attention and then disappearing?
Technology of the Ancients
I spoke with researcher Glenn Kreisberg the VP of the Northeast Antiquities Research Association about this report which he is familiar with. He said he believes the walls are much, much older, maybe staggeringly older. He believes the 3000 year old dating is for too conservative. Kreisberg, who lives in Woodstock, NY and is very familiar with the Hudson, says the state of New York has yet to release information on the location of the walls so researchers have been unable to study them further. Kreisberg also spoke of a site that he has studied on Overlook Mountain for several years. The site has two ninety foot long walls which end in massive serpent heads with the two tails pointing at each other. There are also 6 immense stone cairns, 60 to 90 feet long and up to 12 feet high. When he plotted out the formations he found that they are a mirror of the constellation Draco on the ground. This phenomena, popularized by Graham Hancock in his book Heavens mirror, occurs at sacred sites all over the planet. The three pyramids at Giza are an exact reflection of Orion's belt on the ground and the 40 km temple complex at Angkor Wat in Cambodia is a mirror on the ground of Draco also. Kreisberg also has found early property deeds for the area that show “ancient stone monuments” present from the first land grants, patents and subdivisions recorded.
65,000 feet above Vermont
A research project at Norwich University in Northfield, VT has also yielded very surprising results Led by professor Noel Ring, a scientific study using aerial photography checked by field work, soil analysis and carbon dating was undertaken. Professor Ring has identified from NASA U-2 photographs, taken at a height of 65,000 feet above Vermont, a unique pattern of hexagons identified by stone walls and ditches. Many of the stone walls are independent of colonial and current field patterns, or overlap and cross them in such a way as to make it clear that they were there before the European farmers of the 17th and 18th centuries. Within the hexagons, some a mile long, the soil shows up a different color- and indication of earlier cultivation. Professor Ring is convinced of the antiquity of the stone walls, “One known colonial deed mentions the prior prescience of these stone structures”.
An upside down science
Stone walls 60 ft. under water, stone walls in the shapes of huge geometric forms, reports of ancient stone walls throughout the historical texts, the evidence seems to be pointing in an obvious direction. There are numerous accounts in historical documents, deeds, town records and personal correspondence to support the theory that stone wall construction took place long ago in the Northeast. The oral tradition of virtually every Native American tribe tells of a race that preceded them engaged in either ceremonial mound building or stone building. Obviously, the colonials did a large amount of wall building, however there is a considerable amount left that has not been convincingly explained. So why haven't these pieces been put together more convincingly by an archaeologist or team of researchers. Wouldn't you be hailed for discovering a new theory that possibly sheds light on a mysterious civilization organized around ceremonial stone building in the Northeast that could reach back thousands and thousands of years. The reality is that any professional who steps out of the norm is ostracized, called a lunatic and never debated on the basis of fact but tangential nonsense used to misdirect away from a truth deemed unacceptable by the profession. Whether it is human nature, jealousy, outright suppression of evidence or a simple inability to accept what someone else has found, this is the way the system works in many cases. Archeology is particularly guilty of this behavior. Unlike Astronomy, where amateurs and professionals often have a close working relationship, there is mistrust and division in the world of archeology. Fortunately, the old musty theories of orthodox archeology are being presently dismantled as ground breaking new discoveries continue to happen all around the globe.